Types of market risk pdf Tasman

types of market risk pdf

Types of Orders Investor.gov Aug 05, 2019В В· Types of Financial Risks: Financial risk is one of the high-priority risk types for every business. Financial risk is caused due to market movements and market movements can include a host of factors. Based on this, financial risk can be classified into various types such as Market Risk, Credit Risk, Liquidity Risk, Operational Risk, and Legal

Types of Orders Investor.gov

Section 7.1 Sensitivity to Market Risk. The most common types of orders are market orders, limit orders, and stop-loss orders. A market order is an order to buy or sell a security immediately. This type of order guarantees that the order will be executed, but does not guarantee the execution price., Market risk regulatory pre -crisis models. Impacts: the VaR metrics used before the outburst of the financial crisis did not adequately capture tail-risk events, credit risk events as well as market illiquidity. What happened ? When the financial crisis arose, essentially driven by credit risk events, a ….

Managing market risk: Today and tomorrow Introduction 1 Modeling market risk 3 VAR-iations on a theme 3 Economic capital 6 Current modeling practces 7 Two complements to VAR 8 Implications for IT, the steering framework, and governance 9 Better risk aggregation 9 A simplified steering framework 11 Improved governance 11 Risk is incorporated into so many different disciplines from insurance to engineering to portfolio theory that it should come as no surprise that it is defined in different ways by each one. It is worth looking at some of the distinctions: a. Risk versus Probability: While some definitions of risk focus only on the probability

The most common types of orders are market orders, limit orders, and stop-loss orders. A market order is an order to buy or sell a security immediately. This type of order guarantees that the order will be executed, but does not guarantee the execution price. Managing market risk: Today and tomorrow Introduction 1 Modeling market risk 3 VAR-iations on a theme 3 Economic capital 6 Current modeling practces 7 Two complements to VAR 8 Implications for IT, the steering framework, and governance 9 Better risk aggregation 9 A simplified steering framework 11 Improved governance 11

The meaning of different types of market risk is as follows: 1. Absolute risk is without any content. For e.g., if a coin is tossed, there is fifty percentage chance of getting a head and vice-versa. 2. Relative risk is the assessment or evaluation of risk … Risk is incorporated into so many different disciplines from insurance to engineering to portfolio theory that it should come as no surprise that it is defined in different ways by each one. It is worth looking at some of the distinctions: a. Risk versus Probability: While some definitions of risk focus only on the probability

Thinking about financial risk tends to induce tunnel vision, especially in the wake of a market downturn or when you fear market uncertainty. However, risk, danger and opportunity are closely aligned aspects of uncertainty, and you need to consider each aspect as you make investment decisions: Danger is one-sided uncertainty. Danger produces only bad surprises, […] Aug 10, 2019 · Before we present our article about the types of risk, we are happy to announce that we have partnered with Master of Project Academy to bring you a real Risk Management Plan Template you can download.They offer 50 Project Management Templates, and one of them is a Risk Management Plan Template.

Thinking about financial risk tends to induce tunnel vision, especially in the wake of a market downturn or when you fear market uncertainty. However, risk, danger and opportunity are closely aligned aspects of uncertainty, and you need to consider each aspect as you make investment decisions: Danger is one-sided uncertainty. Danger produces only bad surprises, […] There are four main types of financial risk: credit, interest rate, market and liquidity risk. These risks affect all aspects of finance, including stock and bond investing, corporate finance, consumer finance and international trade. The risks they …

Aug 25, 2015 · Market risk is the potential for price changes in a market to result in investment losses. It is often measured with a concept known as volatility that attempts to predict the potential for price fluctuations of an investment based on its historical price movements. Jan 25, 2012 · 2. Market risk. Market risk is associated with consistent fluctuations seen in the trading price of any particular shares or securities. That is, it arises due to rise or fall in the trading price of listed shares or securities in the stock market. The …

Market risk is the risk of losses in positions arising from movements in market prices. There is no unique classification as each classification may refer to different aspects of market risk. Nevertheless, the most commonly used types of market risk are: Market risk is associated with the economic environment in which all companies operate, including changes in interest rates, exchange rates and commodity prices. These risks can be managed using derivative contracts and other financial risk management tools.

Aug 05, 2019 · Types of Financial Risks: Financial risk is one of the high-priority risk types for every business. Financial risk is caused due to market movements and market movements can include a host of factors. Based on this, financial risk can be classified into various types such as Market Risk, Credit Risk, Liquidity Risk, Operational Risk, and Legal There are two types of option contracts that can be either bought or sold: • Call Derivatives and Risk Management made simple 3. Market risk While market risk cannot be completely removed by diversification, it can be reduced by hedging. The use of interest and inflation rate swaps can produce offsetting positions whereby the risks are

lection. To the extent that such conditions persist, liquidity risk is endemic in the –nancial system and can cause a vicious link between funding and market liquidity, prompting systemic liquidity risk. It is exactly this type of market risk that typi-cally alerts policy makers, because of its potential to destabilise the –nancial system. market risk capital rule may be needed for more detailed definitions and regulatory capital treatments. Where to Submit the Reports . E. Electronic Submission . All market risk institutions must submit their completed reports electronically …

Equity Risk is the third type of Financial Risk. When the market becomes volatile, it becomes difficult for the company to value its equity stocks. The market price often goes down which doesn’t seem to be good news for the firm. This volatility of equity stock market is called the equity risk which comes with the financial risk of the firm. The discussion below starts by proposing a definition of market risks. Two different types of market risk are then defined in section 2, namely risks relating to uncertainty with regard to the composition and actual market value of the asset portfolio that …

Managing market risk Today and tomorrow. There are four main types of financial risk: credit, interest rate, market and liquidity risk. These risks affect all aspects of finance, including stock and bond investing, corporate finance, consumer finance and international trade. The risks they …, There are two types of option contracts that can be either bought or sold: • Call Derivatives and Risk Management made simple 3. Market risk While market risk cannot be completely removed by diversification, it can be reduced by hedging. The use of interest and inflation rate swaps can produce offsetting positions whereby the risks are.

Market risks of insurance companies

types of market risk pdf

Liquidity (risk) concepts definitions and interactions. builds on the elements of the former Standardised Measurement Method for market risk, which allowed for the use of sensitivities in some risk treatments within a risk, Managing market risk: Today and tomorrow Introduction 1 Modeling market risk 3 VAR-iations on a theme 3 Economic capital 6 Current modeling practces 7 Two complements to VAR 8 Implications for IT, the steering framework, and governance 9 Better risk aggregation 9 A simplified steering framework 11 Improved governance 11.

types of market risk pdf

Section 7.1 Sensitivity to Market Risk. builds on the elements of the former Standardised Measurement Method for market risk, which allowed for the use of sensitivities in some risk treatments within a risk, Aug 25, 2017 · The Types. There are at least eight types of risks in the marketplace. 1. Strategic – One may consider the opening of a competitor in your niche a ….

What are the primary sources of market risk?

types of market risk pdf

Section 7.1 Sensitivity to Market Risk. There are two types of option contracts that can be either bought or sold: • Call Derivatives and Risk Management made simple 3. Market risk While market risk cannot be completely removed by diversification, it can be reduced by hedging. The use of interest and inflation rate swaps can produce offsetting positions whereby the risks are https://www.coursehero.com/file/p6aneqrj/Internet-Link-to-the-Diagram-httpsenwikipediaorgwikiCovalentbond-BETHUNE/ Equity Risk is the third type of Financial Risk. When the market becomes volatile, it becomes difficult for the company to value its equity stocks. The market price often goes down which doesn’t seem to be good news for the firm. This volatility of equity stock market is called the equity risk which comes with the financial risk of the firm..

types of market risk pdf


Guidance note on Market Risk Management for Co-operative Financial Institutions 2 Background CFI investments may suffer a loss if there is a fall in the market value of an investment. This is called ‘market risk’ or sometimes ‘price risk’. There are three major types of market risk: Market Risk Policies. ¾Mark-to-market ¾Market valuation methods (e.g., derivatives should priced at mid-market levels, taking into account funding costs, administrative costs, etc.) ¾Identifying revenue sources ¾Measuring market Risk (VaR) ¾Stress simulations ¾Investment and funding forecasts ¾Independent market risk management

Jan 25, 2012 · 2. Market risk. Market risk is associated with consistent fluctuations seen in the trading price of any particular shares or securities. That is, it arises due to rise or fall in the trading price of listed shares or securities in the stock market. The … Managing Market Risk in Banks Analysis of banks’ risk exposures is important both for management within banks and for bank supervisors. Two major sources of risk for banks are credit risk (the risk that loans will not be repaid) and market risk (the risk of losses arising from adverse movements in market prices). This article focuses on the

Managing market risk: Today and tomorrow Introduction 1 Modeling market risk 3 VAR-iations on a theme 3 Economic capital 6 Current modeling practces 7 Two complements to VAR 8 Implications for IT, the steering framework, and governance 9 Better risk aggregation 9 A simplified steering framework 11 Improved governance 11 discussion of other types of market risks is included at the end of this section. Market risks may include more than one type of risk and Sensitivity to Market Risk (7/18) 7.1-2 RMS Manual of Examination Policies Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation .

discussion of other types of market risks is included at the end of this section. Market risks may include more than one type of risk and Sensitivity to Market Risk (7/18) 7.1-2 RMS Manual of Examination Policies Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation . What is a Market - Definition and Different types of Markets A set up where two or more parties engage in exchange of goods, services and information is called a market . Ideally a market is a place where two or more parties are involved in buying and selling.

There are two types of option contracts that can be either bought or sold: • Call Derivatives and Risk Management made simple 3. Market risk While market risk cannot be completely removed by diversification, it can be reduced by hedging. The use of interest and inflation rate swaps can produce offsetting positions whereby the risks are Checklist for Market Risk Management I. Development and Establishment of Market Risk Management System by Management 【Checkpoints】 - Market risk is the risk of loss resulting from changes in the value of assets and liabilities (including off-balance sheet assets and liabilities) due to fluctuations in risk factors such as interest rates,

Mar 14, 2014В В· There are three types of risk you should think about when evaluating a business idea. The first type of risk is obvious. It is simply financial risk that you are willing to take on. The other two types of risk have more to do with actually building and growing the business. They are the product risk and the market risk. Market Risk Policies. ВѕMark-to-market ВѕMarket valuation methods (e.g., derivatives should priced at mid-market levels, taking into account funding costs, administrative costs, etc.) ВѕIdentifying revenue sources ВѕMeasuring market Risk (VaR) ВѕStress simulations ВѕInvestment and funding forecasts ВѕIndependent market risk management

Jan 25, 2012 · 2. Market risk. Market risk is associated with consistent fluctuations seen in the trading price of any particular shares or securities. That is, it arises due to rise or fall in the trading price of listed shares or securities in the stock market. The … Stress Testing Market Risks and Derivatives Portfolios Example: Interest Rate Risk in the Banking Book • Standardized framework according to the Basel document on the principles for the management and supervision of interest rate risk • Part of Basel II - Pillar 2

Aug 10, 2019В В· Before we present our article about the types of risk, we are happy to announce that we have partnered with Master of Project Academy to bring you a real Risk Management Plan Template you can download.They offer 50 Project Management Templates, and one of them is a Risk Management Plan Template. Risk is incorporated into so many different disciplines from insurance to engineering to portfolio theory that it should come as no surprise that it is defined in different ways by each one. It is worth looking at some of the distinctions: a. Risk versus Probability: While some definitions of risk focus only on the probability

lection. To the extent that such conditions persist, liquidity risk is endemic in the –nancial system and can cause a vicious link between funding and market liquidity, prompting systemic liquidity risk. It is exactly this type of market risk that typi-cally alerts policy makers, because of its potential to destabilise the –nancial system. Market risk is associated with the economic environment in which all companies operate, including changes in interest rates, exchange rates and commodity prices. These risks can be managed using derivative contracts and other financial risk management tools.

What is a Market - Definition and Different types of Markets A set up where two or more parties engage in exchange of goods, services and information is called a market . Ideally a market is a place where two or more parties are involved in buying and selling. Market risk is associated with the economic environment in which all companies operate, including changes in interest rates, exchange rates and commodity prices. These risks can be managed using derivative contracts and other financial risk management tools.

types of market risk pdf

Market risk refers to the risk that an investment may face due to fluctuations in the market. The risk is that the investment’s value will decrease. Also known as systematic risk, the term may also refer to a specific currency or commodity.. Market risk is generally expressed in annualized terms, either as a fraction of the initial value (e.g. 6%) or an absolute number (e.g. $6). The material contained in the Management Accounting Guideline Financial Risk Management for Management Financial Risk Management for Management Accountants. 5 operating plans, and (c) considering investment proposals. applied to each of the main types of financial risk – namely, market, credit, financing, and liquidity risks. Risk assess-

7-7-2014В В· Fig. 3: Wetting and coffee ring effects in a dried nanoparticle suspension on a TEM grid. Citrate-coated Au nanoparticles suspended in water were dried on a commercially available, Formvar coated, single slot TEM grid. The majority of the nanoparticles were deposited in a ring-like fashion (Coffee-ring effect, quarter ring shown, arrow). Sample were coated with tem Taranaki Article Snippet: Sample evaluation and optimization were carried out with negative-stain transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a TF20 (FEI) electron microscope. .. Briefly, an aliquot of 2.5 Ојl of the sample at 50 Ојg/ml 6hisHp UreI and 0.2% DM was applied to carbon-coated TEM grids (Ted Pella) and stained with 2% uranyl acetate.

Types of Risk Market Risk Operational Risk Credit Risk

types of market risk pdf

Types of Orders Investor.gov. The meaning of different types of market risk is as follows: 1. Absolute risk is without any content. For e.g., if a coin is tossed, there is fifty percentage chance of getting a head and vice-versa. 2. Relative risk is the assessment or evaluation of risk …, Stress Testing Market Risks and Derivatives Portfolios Example: Interest Rate Risk in the Banking Book • Standardized framework according to the Basel document on the principles for the management and supervision of interest rate risk • Part of Basel II - Pillar 2.

Types of Market Risk Finance Train

Types of Market Risk Finance Train. Market Risk Management – Policy Section 6200 below summarizes the different types of risk that can affect the safety or quality of an investment. Schedule 6.2 INVESTMENT RISK market value of an investment. Yield Risk (financial risk) Refers …, Other important market risks to consider are interest rate risk, exchange rate risk, and commodity price risk. Credit Risk Credit risk and market risk are closely tied together. You can view credit risk as the risk of default on a debt payment. Market risk premiums and prices increase as the perceived credit risk increases..

There are four major types of market risk: Interest Rate Risk; Equity Price Risk; Foreign Exchange Risk; Commodity Price Risk; Interest Rate Risk. Interest rate risk is the risk that the value of a security will fall as a result of increase in interest rates. Mar 12, 2013В В· For example, there's a risk that you won't find an acceptable proposal to an RFP. There's also a risk that your vendors won't deliver to the terms of their contracts. 14. Quality Quality and risk management are intertwined. You'll expect to have defects in your project. However, there's a risk that quality won't meet basic levels.

builds on the elements of the former Standardised Measurement Method for market risk, which allowed for the use of sensitivities in some risk treatments within a risk manufacturer serving a boom-and-bust market or customer. Lowering risk in one area of the supply chain may simply shift risk to another area. Due to these complexities, there is no one-size-fits-all approach to supply chain risk management. Risk management covers the perspectives of both known and unknown risk.

Managing Market Risk in Banks Analysis of banks’ risk exposures is important both for management within banks and for bank supervisors. Two major sources of risk for banks are credit risk (the risk that loans will not be repaid) and market risk (the risk of losses arising from adverse movements in market prices). This article focuses on the Effective risk management should include techniques to identify, assess and respond to all of these types of uncertainties that matter; not just defined risk events. Probability of the risk occurring Many risks are ‘certain to occur’ – they have a 100% probability of occurring what is uncertain is the affect •(• (• ((Black Swans

Thinking about financial risk tends to induce tunnel vision, especially in the wake of a market downturn or when you fear market uncertainty. However, risk, danger and opportunity are closely aligned aspects of uncertainty, and you need to consider each aspect as you make investment decisions: Danger is one-sided uncertainty. Danger produces only bad surprises, […] There are two types of option contracts that can be either bought or sold: • Call Derivatives and Risk Management made simple 3. Market risk While market risk cannot be completely removed by diversification, it can be reduced by hedging. The use of interest and inflation rate swaps can produce offsetting positions whereby the risks are

Equity Risk is the third type of Financial Risk. When the market becomes volatile, it becomes difficult for the company to value its equity stocks. The market price often goes down which doesn’t seem to be good news for the firm. This volatility of equity stock market is called the equity risk which comes with the financial risk of the firm. Other important market risks to consider are interest rate risk, exchange rate risk, and commodity price risk. Credit Risk Credit risk and market risk are closely tied together. You can view credit risk as the risk of default on a debt payment. Market risk premiums and prices increase as the perceived credit risk increases.

Market risk refers to the risk that an investment may face due to fluctuations in the market. The risk is that the investment’s value will decrease. Also known as systematic risk, the term may also refer to a specific currency or commodity.. Market risk is generally expressed in annualized terms, either as a fraction of the initial value (e.g. 6%) or an absolute number (e.g. $6). Jun 25, 2019 · The Bond Market is where organizations go to obtain very large loans. When stock prices go up, bond prices go down. There are many different types of bonds, including Treasury Bonds, corporate bonds, and municipal bonds. Bonds also provide some of the liquidity that keeps the U.S. economy functioning smoothly.

Market risk is the possibility of an investor experiencing losses due to factors that affect the overall performance of the financial markets in which he or she is involved. Market risk, also The most common types of orders are market orders, limit orders, and stop-loss orders. A market order is an order to buy or sell a security immediately. This type of order guarantees that the order will be executed, but does not guarantee the execution price.

Aug 29, 2015 · A list of common business risks. A business risk is a future possibility that may prevent you from achieving a business goal. The risks facing a typical business are broad and include things that you can control such as your strategy and things beyond your control such as the global economy. The discussion below starts by proposing a definition of market risks. Two different types of market risk are then defined in section 2, namely risks relating to uncertainty with regard to the composition and actual market value of the asset portfolio that …

Aug 25, 2017 · The Types. There are at least eight types of risks in the marketplace. 1. Strategic – One may consider the opening of a competitor in your niche a … Aug 25, 2015 · Market risk is the potential for price changes in a market to result in investment losses. It is often measured with a concept known as volatility that attempts to predict the potential for price fluctuations of an investment based on its historical price movements.

The discussion below starts by proposing a definition of market risks. Two different types of market risk are then defined in section 2, namely risks relating to uncertainty with regard to the composition and actual market value of the asset portfolio that … The meaning of different types of market risk is as follows: 1. Absolute risk is without any content. For e.g., if a coin is tossed, there is fifty percentage chance of getting a head and vice-versa. 2. Relative risk is the assessment or evaluation of risk …

Types of Market Risk Finance Train

types of market risk pdf

What is market risk? Definition and meaning Market. The most common types of orders are market orders, limit orders, and stop-loss orders. A market order is an order to buy or sell a security immediately. This type of order guarantees that the order will be executed, but does not guarantee the execution price., Guidance note on Market Risk Management for Co-operative Financial Institutions 2 Background CFI investments may suffer a loss if there is a fall in the market value of an investment. This is called ‘market risk’ or sometimes ‘price risk’. There are three major types of market risk:.

Types of Risk Market Risk Operational Risk Credit Risk

types of market risk pdf

Section 7.1 Sensitivity to Market Risk. builds on the elements of the former Standardised Measurement Method for market risk, which allowed for the use of sensitivities in some risk treatments within a risk https://www.coursehero.com/file/p6aneqrj/Internet-Link-to-the-Diagram-httpsenwikipediaorgwikiCovalentbond-BETHUNE/ Equity Risk is the third type of Financial Risk. When the market becomes volatile, it becomes difficult for the company to value its equity stocks. The market price often goes down which doesn’t seem to be good news for the firm. This volatility of equity stock market is called the equity risk which comes with the financial risk of the firm..

types of market risk pdf


Market risk is the possibility of an investor experiencing losses due to factors that affect the overall performance of the financial markets in which he or she is involved. Market risk, also Checklist for Market Risk Management I. Development and Establishment of Market Risk Management System by Management гЂђCheckpointsгЂ‘ - Market risk is the risk of loss resulting from changes in the value of assets and liabilities (including off-balance sheet assets and liabilities) due to fluctuations in risk factors such as interest rates,

Aug 05, 2019В В· Types of Financial Risks: Financial risk is one of the high-priority risk types for every business. Financial risk is caused due to market movements and market movements can include a host of factors. Based on this, financial risk can be classified into various types such as Market Risk, Credit Risk, Liquidity Risk, Operational Risk, and Legal Checklist for Market Risk Management I. Development and Establishment of Market Risk Management System by Management гЂђCheckpointsгЂ‘ - Market risk is the risk of loss resulting from changes in the value of assets and liabilities (including off-balance sheet assets and liabilities) due to fluctuations in risk factors such as interest rates,

Market Risk Management – Policy Section 6200 below summarizes the different types of risk that can affect the safety or quality of an investment. Schedule 6.2 INVESTMENT RISK market value of an investment. Yield Risk (financial risk) Refers … Aug 25, 2015 · Market risk is the potential for price changes in a market to result in investment losses. It is often measured with a concept known as volatility that attempts to predict the potential for price fluctuations of an investment based on its historical price movements.

Market risk regulatory pre -crisis models. Impacts: the VaR metrics used before the outburst of the financial crisis did not adequately capture tail-risk events, credit risk events as well as market illiquidity. What happened ? When the financial crisis arose, essentially driven by credit risk events, a … The meaning of different types of market risk is as follows: 1. Absolute risk is without any content. For e.g., if a coin is tossed, there is fifty percentage chance of getting a head and vice-versa. 2. Relative risk is the assessment or evaluation of risk …

Jan 25, 2012 · 2. Market risk. Market risk is associated with consistent fluctuations seen in the trading price of any particular shares or securities. That is, it arises due to rise or fall in the trading price of listed shares or securities in the stock market. The … Market Risk Management – Policy Section 6200 below summarizes the different types of risk that can affect the safety or quality of an investment. Schedule 6.2 INVESTMENT RISK market value of an investment. Yield Risk (financial risk) Refers …

Market risk is the possibility of an investor experiencing losses due to factors that affect the overall performance of the financial markets in which he or she is involved. Market risk, also builds on the elements of the former Standardised Measurement Method for market risk, which allowed for the use of sensitivities in some risk treatments within a risk

Other important market risks to consider are interest rate risk, exchange rate risk, and commodity price risk. Credit Risk Credit risk and market risk are closely tied together. You can view credit risk as the risk of default on a debt payment. Market risk premiums and prices increase as the perceived credit risk increases. The discussion below starts by proposing a definition of market risks. Two different types of market risk are then defined in section 2, namely risks relating to uncertainty with regard to the composition and actual market value of the asset portfolio that …

Jun 25, 2019 · The Bond Market is where organizations go to obtain very large loans. When stock prices go up, bond prices go down. There are many different types of bonds, including Treasury Bonds, corporate bonds, and municipal bonds. Bonds also provide some of the liquidity that keeps the U.S. economy functioning smoothly. Thinking about financial risk tends to induce tunnel vision, especially in the wake of a market downturn or when you fear market uncertainty. However, risk, danger and opportunity are closely aligned aspects of uncertainty, and you need to consider each aspect as you make investment decisions: Danger is one-sided uncertainty. Danger produces only bad surprises, […]

Market risk regulatory pre -crisis models. Impacts: the VaR metrics used before the outburst of the financial crisis did not adequately capture tail-risk events, credit risk events as well as market illiquidity. What happened ? When the financial crisis arose, essentially driven by credit risk events, a … Aug 10, 2019 · Before we present our article about the types of risk, we are happy to announce that we have partnered with Master of Project Academy to bring you a real Risk Management Plan Template you can download.They offer 50 Project Management Templates, and one of them is a Risk Management Plan Template.

Market risk is the possibility of an investor experiencing losses due to factors that affect the overall performance of the financial markets in which he or she is involved. Market risk, also Checklist for Market Risk Management I. Development and Establishment of Market Risk Management System by Management гЂђCheckpointsгЂ‘ - Market risk is the risk of loss resulting from changes in the value of assets and liabilities (including off-balance sheet assets and liabilities) due to fluctuations in risk factors such as interest rates,

types of market risk pdf

Aug 25, 2015 · Market risk is the potential for price changes in a market to result in investment losses. It is often measured with a concept known as volatility that attempts to predict the potential for price fluctuations of an investment based on its historical price movements. Managing Market Risk in Banks Analysis of banks’ risk exposures is important both for management within banks and for bank supervisors. Two major sources of risk for banks are credit risk (the risk that loans will not be repaid) and market risk (the risk of losses arising from adverse movements in market prices). This article focuses on the